44 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION and sought to make her empire permanent by planting Greek towns and cities in every part of the conquered territories. The city of Alexandria, founded in the delta of the Nile by Alexander himself, in 332 B.C., with settlers from all parts of the known world living under Greek institutions, was the most brilliant of a great number of cities, from which radiated an expansive Hellenism as resistless as the Macedonian phalanx, and prepared the way for the unity of civilization. So sound was Alexander's policy that his early death in 323 B.C. made no appreciable difference in the development of things, His empire, it is true, fell to pieces almost immediately, but the process of Hellenization which he had begun went on steadily in the following century under the Macedonian rulers, who became the rulers of its several parts. Even the victorious progress of the Romans in the Second Century, which reduced Greece to a Roman province in 146 B.C. and ultimately made Rome the mistress of a greater empire than Alexander's, instead of impeding the advance of Hellenism, only opened up a new sphere of in- fluence for it. It was literally true, in the often quoted words of Horace, that " captive Greece took captive her rude conqueror and brought the arts to Latiurn," and through Latium she dominated the whole world. But the Hellenism of the Roman world was profoundly different in many respects from that of the Greek cities in which it had its origin. In becoming the spiritual basis of Mediterranean life in the centuries immediately before and after Christ, Greek culture came into intimate relations with the independent cultures of the Persians, the Jews, the Egyptians and the Romans, and was forced to come to some kind of terms with them all. The result of the combination of the different national ideals was the emergence of a common culture with many local varieties, which though in the main Hellenic in character, derived something distinctive from all its constituent elements. The development of education during the period under survey has the same general features as the wider syncretic movement of which it forms part. There was not much novelty about its practice, and none about its theory. The one new institution was what is sometimes called the Greek "university/* with its centres ,of inspiration in Athens and Alexandria. But even though there was little originality in other forms of education.